The ear is one of many complex and compact organs in our body. Because of that, there are many Ear disorders among people. Hearing and equilibrium are the structure and function of this organ. There are three fundamental components of our ears: the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear.
The outer ear
It works as a funnel that directs sound waves to the middle ear. The outer ear consists of two parts the Pinna and external canal.
Pinna (Auricle) is the outer part of the ear that we can see it is made out of cartilage cover. Also, it helps funnel sound waves, and the complex shape of pinna reacts with sound waves and allows us to identify directions of sound.
The external canal is the place we put we put cotton swabs. The primary function of the external canal is direct sound waves to the eardrum and protect the eardrum for external swabs, pencils. There are glands in the skin that cover the outside third of the canal’s cartilage. These glands generate wax covering and protecting the canal’s skin lining.
The middle ear helps amplify the sound waves and transport them to the inner ear. Actually, it works as an amplification bridge between the outer and inner ear. It consists of two parts. That are Eardrum, Eustachian Tube and Ossicles
The eardrum forms a watertight seal between the ear canal and the middle ear and collects sound wave vibrations in the ear canal. The eardrum’s center layer is reinforced by fibrous tissue and includes many small vessels of the blood.
Ossicles (Three Bones of Hearing) is connected with an eardrum. The first bone of hearing on its inner surface called the malleus. The eardrum vibrates with sound waves in the ear canal, which in turn vibrates the malleus and two other hearing bones, the incus (anvil) and the stages (stirrup). The eardrum and middle ear bones together amplify twenty-six times the sound before providing it to the inner ear.
The Eustachian tube’s two primary functions are to enable mucus to flow from the middle ear and air into and out of the middle ear. Air passage equalizes middle ear pressure with external air pressure.
The inner ear contains two parts: the cochlea (for hearing) and the balance system. They comprise sensory receptors called cochlea hair that suspended in the fluid of the inner ear. The cochlea hair cells differentiate sound vibrations in the fluid and transform them into electrical nerve signals transmitting to the brain. The balance system’s hair cells perceive motion and gravity and transform them into electrical nerve signals traveling to the brain’s balance system.
Because the ear is a very complex organ, there can be many disorders. We can categorize as below.
- Outer ear disorders
- Middle ear disorders
- Inner Ear disorders
Outer ear disorders.
There can be many disorders in this area, including swimmer’s ear, obstructions, malformations and growths, cancer, bacterial Infection, Fungal Infection, and trauma. We will look into these disorders, symptoms, and how to prevent them in another article.
Middle ear disorders.
Infection and fluid buildup are the most prevalent middle ear issues. These happen often in kids because until pre-adolescence their Eustachian tubes do not mature. Perforations, bony fusion or bone dislocation, and tumors may also influence the middle ear. We will look into these disorders, symptoms, and how to prevent them in another article.
Inner Ear disorders.
The two prevalent issues are Ménière disease and hearing loss caused by noise. We also portray the symptoms of sudden deafness and autoimmune diseases and the effects of using certain life-saving drugs on hearing. We will look into these disorders, symptoms, and how to prevent them in another article.