What is the immune system?
The immune system, consisting of unique cells, proteins, tissues, and organs, defends individuals every day against germs and micro-organisms. Therefore, the immune system performs an excellent job in most instances to keep individuals healthy and prevent infections. However, sometimes complications with the can lead to illness and infection.
Importance of the immune system
For us, the immune system is essential. It is the body’s most important mechanism to prevent and combat diseases. Above all, it stops certain kinds of cancer from developing. The significance of the immune system to health is infrequent findings. The people with faulty immune responses are prone to severe, often life-threatening diseases.
By contrast, the most effective technique for defending people from diseases is to stimulate immune responses against microbes through vaccination. This strategy has resulted in the global eradication of smallpox. The only disease that has been eliminated by human interference from civilization. The advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the 1980s tragically underlined the immune system’s significance in protecting people from infection.
However, these beneficial roles, the causes of many inflammatory diseases with severe morbidity and mortality are abnormal immune responses.
In order to safeguard the host, the immune system kills pathogens and tumor cells. It consists of two significant sections, the inherent (non-specific) immune system and the adaptive immune system.
- Innate immunity
- Adaptive immunity
Innate immunity system
The innate immunity is always switched on and protects us from damaging stuff that our bodies have never seen before. Therefore, inherent or natural defenses are so essential that without them.
These innate defense mechanisms will be discussed in two classifications. The first, the passive barrier defenses, safeguard us by stopping the entry of damaging things like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and toxins into the deeper tissues of our bodies where they could do much harm. These barrier defenses have the same role as a fence and the strengthened walls surrounding a castle. Epithelial obstacles and cells and natural antibiotics current in epithelia provide the first line of protection in innate immunity, all of which work to prevent the entry of microbes. If microbes break epithelia and get into tissues or circulation, phagocytes, specialize lymphocytes as natural killer cells, and several plasma proteins will attack them.
The adaptive immune response or particular immune response comprises of antibody reactions and cell-mediated reactions. Respectively performed by various lymphocyte cells, B cells, and T cells.
However, B Cells are the main cells that engage in creating antibodies that circulate in blood plasma and lymph where they bind specifically to foreign antigens.
Above all, Instead of involving antibodies, cell-mediated immunity includes activation of macrophages, natural killer cells (NK), antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and release of different cytokines in reaction to an antigen.