This is the second installment about physical exercise as therapy to fight diseases, focused on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, asthma, arthritis, osteoarthritis and cancer.
In the first we talk about the general relationship between sport and health and we focus on diseases such as heart disease or high blood pressure. The next one will be focused on neurodegenerative diseases, anxiety and depression and diseases of the digestive system.
Physical exercise in diabetes mellitus
Treatment of the diabetes mellitus type I or autoimmune and type 2 or secondary to obesity You must have the practice of physical exercise.
The physical exercise Insulin should be increased in these cases and the time of day it is performed, its duration and intensity, blood glucose levels before and after exercise, and the type of dose used should be taken into account.
Insulin should be injected into muscle groups that are mobilized during exercise.
Administer an extra amount of carbohydrates before or during exercise or reduce the dose of insulin.
Plan the exercise to do it regularly for one hour during the day, preferably in the early hours of the morning.
The most recommended sports are walking, jogging, cycling, aerobic gymnastics, and swimming. Competitive or high intensity sports are discouraged.
Before practicing sport, it is advisable for the person to do 10-20 minutes of stretching and 5 minutes of aerobic warm-up.
Precautions should be taken such as:
- Blood glucose levels are less than 100 mg / ml, a fruit should be consumed before practicing physical exercise.
- Glucose levels are between 100 and 150 mg / ml, you can do physical exercise without risk.
- Glucose levels are greater than 250 mg / ml, we must leave physical exercise for another time.
Physical exercise brings numerous benefits to the health of people with diabetes:
- Increases glucose utilization by muscle.
- Control and avoid overweight and obesity.
- Keeps blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels stable.
- Avoid anxiety, depression and stress.
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Hyperlipidemia and physical exercise
Numerous studies have shown that physical activity has beneficial effects in patients suffering from hyperlipidemia because it influences plasma lipid levels.
It lowers triglyceride levels, bad cholesterol and increases good cholesterol. Maintains body weight and prevents obesity.
It helps the heart work better, reduces the number of beats per minute, improves its contraction and develops new arteries.
It’s recommended moderate intensity aerobic exercise such as light walking, cycling, swimming with moderate intensity of 65 to 70% of the heart activity.
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Asthma and physical exercise
The asthma is a chronic disease characterized by recurrent bouts of dyspnea with shortness of breath, shortness of breath, and wheezing.
The most recommended sport for these patients is swimming, although water polo, baseball, indoor sports such as basketball and handball are also recommended.
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They can carefully practice gymnastics, cycling or cycling, tennis, rowing or canoeing, and running.
Competitive sports such as athletics, diving, caving, mountaineering, etc. are discouraged.
The recommendations for physical exercise for patients with asthma are as follows:
- Practice physical activity regularly depending on the physical capacity of the patient.
- Warm up before exercise for 10 to 15 minutes.
- Keep the nostrils clean.
- Avoid exercising in polluted environments with high concentrations of pollen.
- Avoid sudden temperature changes.
- If symptoms appear, stop exercising and use rescue medication.
- If medication has been prescribed to prevent EIA, use it before practicing physical exercise.
- Do not stop exercising abruptly.
Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and physical exercise
The physical activity It is recommended for the treatment of arthritis and osteoarthritis against rest.
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The pressure of movement from physical exercise causes synovial fluid to flow in and out of the inflamed or affected joint, keeping it moist, healthy, and well nourished.
Strengthens supporting structures such as muscles, tendons and ligaments and increases range of motion, cushioning capacity and flexibility of the joints.
Physical exercise improves the general and physical health of people suffering from arthritis and osteoarthritis because it helps to:
- Increase energy
- Sleep better.
- Improve self-esteem and decrease stress.
- Strengthen the heart and reduce weight.
If physical exercise is not carried out, in these people the pain increases because we do not activate the enzymes and hormones that attenuate it and the bones also weaken, favoring the osteoporosis and muscles favoring stiffness and muscle atrophy.
One of the sports recommended for these patients is swimming, due to the following reasons:
- The warmth of the water relieves pain and facilitates relaxation
- Improve muscle tone with exercises
- Pressure on the joints decreases
- Improves blood circulation and joint mobility.
The home by wide movements, walking and cycling, some gym exercises. Highly repetitive movements should be avoided.
Competitive sports and high intensity sports are discouraged because they aggravate the joint problem.
Physical exercise and cancer
Cancer patients are tired and weak. Despite this, practicing 30 minutes a day of moderate physical exercise benefits your health.
Sports such as walking, swimming, gymnastics, cycling, and dancing with moderate efforts and starting a small period of time like 10 minutes a day and then increasing it and practicing it for 30 minutes a day.
I know they discourage sports of great effort as competitive and high-effort sports. However, tennis, soccer, basketball, and other team sports practiced in moderation and care can benefit these patients. It is also very beneficial yoga.
It is advised that they consult with the oncologist the therapy of the physical exercise, that begin little time; for example, 10 minutes with gentle exercises that increase the duration of the exercise and the intensity in a gentle and progressive way. They must previously perform warm-ups and stretching exercises.
The benefits of physical exercise in cancer patients are:
- It reduces stress and anxiety and combats insomnia in many patients.
- Increases endurance and physical strength.
- Decreases the side effects of chemotherapy.
- Boost the defenses of these patients.
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